The management of solid waste presents a challenge for developing countries as the generation of waste is increasing at a rapid and alarming rate. Much awareness towards the sustainability and technological advances for solid waste management has been implemented to reduce the generation of unnecessary waste. The recycling of this waste is being applied to produce valuable organic matter, which can be used as fertilizers or amendments to improve the soil structure. This review studies the sustainable transformation of various types of biomass waste such as animal manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, and food waste, into organic fertilizers and their impact on waste minimization and agricultural enhancement. The side effects of these organic fertilizers towards the soil are evaluated as the characteristics of these fertilizers will differ depending on the types of waste used, in addition to the varying chemical composition of the organic fertilizers. This work will provide an insight to the potential management of biomass waste to be produced into organic fertilizer and the advantages of substituting chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer derived from the biomass waste.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law