The characterization of Al bond pad surface treatment in electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) deposition

M. K. Md Arshad, A. Jalar, I. Ahmad, G. Omar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study reports a number of experiments that were designed to characterize aluminum bond pad surfaces prior to electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG). In the ENIG process, aluminum bond pads need special treatment to achieve successful nickel deposition and provide reliable interconnection of under bump metallurgy in advanced packaging. During this treatment process, the aluminum pad was cleaned, activated and then coated with a layer of zinc. Systematic study was carried out to determine the best parameters, through multiple and various exposure times of the zincation process and zincation solution concentration effect on the Ni/Au surface roughness and aluminum dissolution rate on the bond pad during multiple zincation process. The ball shear strength was evaluated between eutectic 37Pb/63Sn solder ball and under bump metallurgy (UBM) interfaces across multiple zincation process. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and ball shear tester were used as analytical tools. The results suggest that the multiple zincation process consistently produces a smoother surface of ENIG UBM and consequently provides a better shear strength.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-141
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Applied Sciences
Volume4
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2007

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Nickel
Aluminum
Gold
Surface treatment
Metallurgy
Shear strength
Focused ion beams
Soldering alloys
Eutectics
Zinc
Atomic force microscopy
Packaging
Dissolution
Electron microscopes
Surface roughness
Scanning
X rays
Experiments

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

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abstract = "This study reports a number of experiments that were designed to characterize aluminum bond pad surfaces prior to electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG). In the ENIG process, aluminum bond pads need special treatment to achieve successful nickel deposition and provide reliable interconnection of under bump metallurgy in advanced packaging. During this treatment process, the aluminum pad was cleaned, activated and then coated with a layer of zinc. Systematic study was carried out to determine the best parameters, through multiple and various exposure times of the zincation process and zincation solution concentration effect on the Ni/Au surface roughness and aluminum dissolution rate on the bond pad during multiple zincation process. The ball shear strength was evaluated between eutectic 37Pb/63Sn solder ball and under bump metallurgy (UBM) interfaces across multiple zincation process. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and ball shear tester were used as analytical tools. The results suggest that the multiple zincation process consistently produces a smoother surface of ENIG UBM and consequently provides a better shear strength.",
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The characterization of Al bond pad surface treatment in electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) deposition. / Md Arshad, M. K.; Jalar, A.; Ahmad, I.; Omar, G.

In: American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 3, 01.01.2007, p. 133-141.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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