A variety of rechargeable batteries are now available in world markets for powering electric vehicles (EVs). The lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is considered the best among all battery types and cells because of its superior characteristics and performance. The positive environmental impacts and recycling potential of lithium batteries have influenced the development of new research for improving Li-ion battery technologies. However, the cost reduction, safe operation, and mitigation of negative ecological impacts are now a common concern for advancement. This paper provides a comprehensive study on the state of the art of Li-ion batteries including the fundamentals, structures, and overall performance evaluations of different types of lithium batteries. A study on a battery management system for Li-ion battery storage in EV applications is demonstrated, which includes a cell condition monitoring, charge, and discharge control, states estimation, protection and equalization, temperature control and heat management, battery fault diagnosis, and assessment aimed at enhancing the overall performance of the system. It is observed that the Li-ion batteries are becoming very popular in vehicle applications due to price reductions and lightweight with high power density. However, the management of the charging and discharging processes, CO2 and greenhouse gases emissions, health effects, and recycling and refurbishing processes have still not been resolved satisfactorily. Consequently, this review focuses on the many factors, challenges, and problems and provides recommendations for sustainable battery manufacturing for future EVs. This review will hopefully lead to increasing efforts toward the development of an advanced Li-ion battery in terms of economics, longevity, specific power, energy density, safety, and performance in vehicle applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Science(all)
- Materials Science(all)