Shoulder surf resistant screen locking for smartphones: A review of fifty non-biometric methods

Hazleen Aris, Wira Firdaus Yaakob

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

With a lot of personal information being stored in the smartphones nowadays, there is an urgent need to protect them from unauthorised access. The first line of defense of a smartphone is its screen lock. Thus, many screen locking methods have been designed with the aim of minimising, if not eliminating the chances of unauthorised access through attacks such as shoulder surfing. This paper provides an overview on the state of research on non-biometric shoulder surf resistant screen locking methods with the aim to identify the techniques used by these methods in defending against shoulder surf attacks. A systematic literature review performed found a total of 84 methods designed and developed to date, which covers the time span of ten years. A notably higher number of new methods was published each year during the last five years and the number continues to grow steadily, indicating the relevance and currentness of the research area. Non-biometric screen locking methods in particular was found to constitute the majority of the methods with 50 methods. During the analysis, these methods were first vertically classified into PIN-based, pattern-based and image-based. Then they were horizontally categorised into those that use fixed password and those that use one-time password to unlock the screen. At the end of the analysis, a total of ten shoulder surf resistant techniques used in these methods was extracted. These techniques were used either in isolation or in combination with one another. Findings from this study would be useful in providing the state-of-the-art summary of the non-biometric shoulder surf resistant screen locking methods.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages7-14
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781538669259
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2019
Event2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018 - Langkawi, Kedah, Malaysia
Duration: 21 Nov 201822 Nov 2018

Publication series

Name2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018

Conference

Conference2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018
CountryMalaysia
CityLangkawi, Kedah
Period21/11/1822/11/18

Fingerprint

Smartphones

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

Cite this

Aris, H., & Yaakob, W. F. (2019). Shoulder surf resistant screen locking for smartphones: A review of fifty non-biometric methods. In 2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018 (pp. 7-14). [8631419] (2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1109/IISA.2018.8631419
Aris, Hazleen ; Yaakob, Wira Firdaus. / Shoulder surf resistant screen locking for smartphones : A review of fifty non-biometric methods. 2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019. pp. 7-14 (2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018).
@inproceedings{4169ffe81bc44a82bef8ba63d98d7198,
title = "Shoulder surf resistant screen locking for smartphones: A review of fifty non-biometric methods",
abstract = "With a lot of personal information being stored in the smartphones nowadays, there is an urgent need to protect them from unauthorised access. The first line of defense of a smartphone is its screen lock. Thus, many screen locking methods have been designed with the aim of minimising, if not eliminating the chances of unauthorised access through attacks such as shoulder surfing. This paper provides an overview on the state of research on non-biometric shoulder surf resistant screen locking methods with the aim to identify the techniques used by these methods in defending against shoulder surf attacks. A systematic literature review performed found a total of 84 methods designed and developed to date, which covers the time span of ten years. A notably higher number of new methods was published each year during the last five years and the number continues to grow steadily, indicating the relevance and currentness of the research area. Non-biometric screen locking methods in particular was found to constitute the majority of the methods with 50 methods. During the analysis, these methods were first vertically classified into PIN-based, pattern-based and image-based. Then they were horizontally categorised into those that use fixed password and those that use one-time password to unlock the screen. At the end of the analysis, a total of ten shoulder surf resistant techniques used in these methods was extracted. These techniques were used either in isolation or in combination with one another. Findings from this study would be useful in providing the state-of-the-art summary of the non-biometric shoulder surf resistant screen locking methods.",
author = "Hazleen Aris and Yaakob, {Wira Firdaus}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "31",
doi = "10.1109/IISA.2018.8631419",
language = "English",
series = "2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.",
pages = "7--14",
booktitle = "2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018",
address = "United States",

}

Aris, H & Yaakob, WF 2019, Shoulder surf resistant screen locking for smartphones: A review of fifty non-biometric methods. in 2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018., 8631419, 2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp. 7-14, 2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018, Langkawi, Kedah, Malaysia, 21/11/18. https://doi.org/10.1109/IISA.2018.8631419

Shoulder surf resistant screen locking for smartphones : A review of fifty non-biometric methods. / Aris, Hazleen; Yaakob, Wira Firdaus.

2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019. p. 7-14 8631419 (2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - Shoulder surf resistant screen locking for smartphones

T2 - A review of fifty non-biometric methods

AU - Aris, Hazleen

AU - Yaakob, Wira Firdaus

PY - 2019/1/31

Y1 - 2019/1/31

N2 - With a lot of personal information being stored in the smartphones nowadays, there is an urgent need to protect them from unauthorised access. The first line of defense of a smartphone is its screen lock. Thus, many screen locking methods have been designed with the aim of minimising, if not eliminating the chances of unauthorised access through attacks such as shoulder surfing. This paper provides an overview on the state of research on non-biometric shoulder surf resistant screen locking methods with the aim to identify the techniques used by these methods in defending against shoulder surf attacks. A systematic literature review performed found a total of 84 methods designed and developed to date, which covers the time span of ten years. A notably higher number of new methods was published each year during the last five years and the number continues to grow steadily, indicating the relevance and currentness of the research area. Non-biometric screen locking methods in particular was found to constitute the majority of the methods with 50 methods. During the analysis, these methods were first vertically classified into PIN-based, pattern-based and image-based. Then they were horizontally categorised into those that use fixed password and those that use one-time password to unlock the screen. At the end of the analysis, a total of ten shoulder surf resistant techniques used in these methods was extracted. These techniques were used either in isolation or in combination with one another. Findings from this study would be useful in providing the state-of-the-art summary of the non-biometric shoulder surf resistant screen locking methods.

AB - With a lot of personal information being stored in the smartphones nowadays, there is an urgent need to protect them from unauthorised access. The first line of defense of a smartphone is its screen lock. Thus, many screen locking methods have been designed with the aim of minimising, if not eliminating the chances of unauthorised access through attacks such as shoulder surfing. This paper provides an overview on the state of research on non-biometric shoulder surf resistant screen locking methods with the aim to identify the techniques used by these methods in defending against shoulder surf attacks. A systematic literature review performed found a total of 84 methods designed and developed to date, which covers the time span of ten years. A notably higher number of new methods was published each year during the last five years and the number continues to grow steadily, indicating the relevance and currentness of the research area. Non-biometric screen locking methods in particular was found to constitute the majority of the methods with 50 methods. During the analysis, these methods were first vertically classified into PIN-based, pattern-based and image-based. Then they were horizontally categorised into those that use fixed password and those that use one-time password to unlock the screen. At the end of the analysis, a total of ten shoulder surf resistant techniques used in these methods was extracted. These techniques were used either in isolation or in combination with one another. Findings from this study would be useful in providing the state-of-the-art summary of the non-biometric shoulder surf resistant screen locking methods.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85062843587&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85062843587&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/IISA.2018.8631419

DO - 10.1109/IISA.2018.8631419

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:85062843587

T3 - 2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018

SP - 7

EP - 14

BT - 2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018

PB - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.

ER -

Aris H, Yaakob WF. Shoulder surf resistant screen locking for smartphones: A review of fifty non-biometric methods. In 2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. 2019. p. 7-14. 8631419. (2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security, AINS 2018). https://doi.org/10.1109/IISA.2018.8631419