Red lentil (Lens culinaris) extract as a novel natural coagulant for turbidity reduction: An evaluation, characterization and performance optimization study

Siong Chin Chua, Marlinda Abdul Malek, Fai Kait Chong, Wawan Sujarwo, Yeek Chia Ho

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Increasing awareness on the detrimental effects of inorganic chemical coagulants and sustainable treatment have paved the way to develop environmentally-benign natural coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. In this research, brown, green, and red lentil (Lens culinaris) extracts have been evaluated as a natural coagulant for the turbidity reduction. The physicochemical characteristics properties of lentil extract were evaluated through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential analysis, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Red lentil extract was found to be an anionic polymer with hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups. The effects of three major operating parameters, pH, the concentration of coagulant, and settling time, were studied and optimized through response surface methodology (RSM) using the Box-Behnken Design (BBD). The red lentil extract as coagulant was outperformed alum in acidic wastewater treatment, which achieved up to 98.87% turbidity removal with an optimum concentration of 26.3mg/L in 3min. Besides, the red lentil extract as coagulant reduced 29.42% of material cost, generated 15.6% lower amount of sludge and produced flocs with better settling characteristic (SVI: 7.39) as compared to alum. Based on the experimental observation and characterization study, absorption and bridging mechanisms were proposed for red lentil extract as the coagulant in turbidity reduction.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1686
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 01 Aug 2019


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Aquatic Science
  • Water Science and Technology

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