Face as a biometric attribute has been extensively studied over the past few decades. Even though, satisfactory results are already achieved in controlled environments, the practicality of face recognition in realistic scenarios is still limited by several challenges, such as, expression, pose, occlusion, etc. Recently, the research direction is concentrating on the prospects of complementing face recognition systems with facial soft biometric traits. The ease of extracting facial soft biometrics under several varying conditions has mainly resulted in the ability of using the traits to, either improve the performance of traditional face recognition systems, or performing recognition solely based on many facial soft biometrics. This paper presents state-of-the-art techniques in facial soft biometrics research by describing the type of traits, feature extraction methods, and the application domains. It indicates the most recent and valuable results attained, while also highlighting some possible future scientific research directions to be investigated.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Human-Computer Interaction
- Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
- Computer Science Applications
- Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design