Raw water treatment using bentonite-chitosan as a coagulant

S. Syafalni, Ismail Abustan, Siti Nor Farhana Zakaria, Mohd Hafiz Zawawi, Rafini Abd Rahim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effectiveness of bentonite using chitosan as a coagulant for raw water treatment was assessed in this study. The possible link between Alzheimer's disease with conventional aluminium based coagulants, has become an issue in water treatment. A method for treating water, using a natural approach as an alternate to achieve enhanced coagulation, might help to reduce risk to health, and be more environmentally friendly. One method for removing turbidity from raw water is by the adding of a primary coagulant (e.g., a natural polymer of chitosan) and a coagulant aid (e.g., natural clay of bentonite) to the raw water. A series of batch coagulation tests were conducted by jar test to obtain the optimum dosage, pH, ratio of coagulant aid and primary coagulant, and the efficiency time for the jar test, by evaluating the standard parameters, such as turbidity, pH, colour, aluminium, and chlorine. In terms of these parameters, chitosan:bentonite showed the best result, with a ratio of 30:70 in an optimal concentration of 1,000 mg/l with 0.15 g chitosan plus 0.35 g bentonite. The coagulants performed with an optimal pH of 5, with 30 min of mixing time during flocculation. However, the optimal pH condition during the jar test showed an improvement in the water alkalinity results, from pH 5 to 6.8. Coagulation with bentonite-chitosan successfully removed the turbidity with a highest efficiency of 98%. After water treatment in the optimal condition, results showed a great water quality standard, with 1.38 NTU, 10 TCU, 0.01 mg/l amount of chlorine and aluminium, and a pH of 6.8. However, data only showed slight differences of efficiency, between natural and conventional coagulants. In terms of the sludge volume index (SVI), the ratio of alum to bentonitechitosan was found to be 3:1 which indicated that less sludge was produced by the natural coagulant. In a cost comparison between these coagulants, based on a rough estimation, bentonitechitosan is nearly 10 times more expensive than the alum coagulant. However, with mass production and commercial availability, in the long run the price of chitosan could be reduced tremendously.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)480-488
Number of pages9
JournalWater Science and Technology: Water Supply
Volume12
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2012

Fingerprint

bentonite
water treatment
coagulation
turbidity
aluminum
chlorine
sludge
flocculation
alkalinity
aid
polymer
raw water
water quality
clay
water
test
cost
parameter
method

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Water Science and Technology

Cite this

Syafalni, S. ; Abustan, Ismail ; Zakaria, Siti Nor Farhana ; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz ; Rahim, Rafini Abd. / Raw water treatment using bentonite-chitosan as a coagulant. In: Water Science and Technology: Water Supply. 2012 ; Vol. 12, No. 4. pp. 480-488.
@article{f56c0a85dc5b453d9e9a73242a49f244,
title = "Raw water treatment using bentonite-chitosan as a coagulant",
abstract = "The effectiveness of bentonite using chitosan as a coagulant for raw water treatment was assessed in this study. The possible link between Alzheimer's disease with conventional aluminium based coagulants, has become an issue in water treatment. A method for treating water, using a natural approach as an alternate to achieve enhanced coagulation, might help to reduce risk to health, and be more environmentally friendly. One method for removing turbidity from raw water is by the adding of a primary coagulant (e.g., a natural polymer of chitosan) and a coagulant aid (e.g., natural clay of bentonite) to the raw water. A series of batch coagulation tests were conducted by jar test to obtain the optimum dosage, pH, ratio of coagulant aid and primary coagulant, and the efficiency time for the jar test, by evaluating the standard parameters, such as turbidity, pH, colour, aluminium, and chlorine. In terms of these parameters, chitosan:bentonite showed the best result, with a ratio of 30:70 in an optimal concentration of 1,000 mg/l with 0.15 g chitosan plus 0.35 g bentonite. The coagulants performed with an optimal pH of 5, with 30 min of mixing time during flocculation. However, the optimal pH condition during the jar test showed an improvement in the water alkalinity results, from pH 5 to 6.8. Coagulation with bentonite-chitosan successfully removed the turbidity with a highest efficiency of 98{\%}. After water treatment in the optimal condition, results showed a great water quality standard, with 1.38 NTU, 10 TCU, 0.01 mg/l amount of chlorine and aluminium, and a pH of 6.8. However, data only showed slight differences of efficiency, between natural and conventional coagulants. In terms of the sludge volume index (SVI), the ratio of alum to bentonitechitosan was found to be 3:1 which indicated that less sludge was produced by the natural coagulant. In a cost comparison between these coagulants, based on a rough estimation, bentonitechitosan is nearly 10 times more expensive than the alum coagulant. However, with mass production and commercial availability, in the long run the price of chitosan could be reduced tremendously.",
author = "S. Syafalni and Ismail Abustan and Zakaria, {Siti Nor Farhana} and Zawawi, {Mohd Hafiz} and Rahim, {Rafini Abd}",
year = "2012",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.2166/ws.2012.016",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "480--488",
journal = "Water Science and Technology: Water Supply",
issn = "1606-9749",
publisher = "IWA Publishing",
number = "4",

}

Raw water treatment using bentonite-chitosan as a coagulant. / Syafalni, S.; Abustan, Ismail; Zakaria, Siti Nor Farhana; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Rahim, Rafini Abd.

In: Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, Vol. 12, No. 4, 01.01.2012, p. 480-488.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Raw water treatment using bentonite-chitosan as a coagulant

AU - Syafalni, S.

AU - Abustan, Ismail

AU - Zakaria, Siti Nor Farhana

AU - Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz

AU - Rahim, Rafini Abd

PY - 2012/1/1

Y1 - 2012/1/1

N2 - The effectiveness of bentonite using chitosan as a coagulant for raw water treatment was assessed in this study. The possible link between Alzheimer's disease with conventional aluminium based coagulants, has become an issue in water treatment. A method for treating water, using a natural approach as an alternate to achieve enhanced coagulation, might help to reduce risk to health, and be more environmentally friendly. One method for removing turbidity from raw water is by the adding of a primary coagulant (e.g., a natural polymer of chitosan) and a coagulant aid (e.g., natural clay of bentonite) to the raw water. A series of batch coagulation tests were conducted by jar test to obtain the optimum dosage, pH, ratio of coagulant aid and primary coagulant, and the efficiency time for the jar test, by evaluating the standard parameters, such as turbidity, pH, colour, aluminium, and chlorine. In terms of these parameters, chitosan:bentonite showed the best result, with a ratio of 30:70 in an optimal concentration of 1,000 mg/l with 0.15 g chitosan plus 0.35 g bentonite. The coagulants performed with an optimal pH of 5, with 30 min of mixing time during flocculation. However, the optimal pH condition during the jar test showed an improvement in the water alkalinity results, from pH 5 to 6.8. Coagulation with bentonite-chitosan successfully removed the turbidity with a highest efficiency of 98%. After water treatment in the optimal condition, results showed a great water quality standard, with 1.38 NTU, 10 TCU, 0.01 mg/l amount of chlorine and aluminium, and a pH of 6.8. However, data only showed slight differences of efficiency, between natural and conventional coagulants. In terms of the sludge volume index (SVI), the ratio of alum to bentonitechitosan was found to be 3:1 which indicated that less sludge was produced by the natural coagulant. In a cost comparison between these coagulants, based on a rough estimation, bentonitechitosan is nearly 10 times more expensive than the alum coagulant. However, with mass production and commercial availability, in the long run the price of chitosan could be reduced tremendously.

AB - The effectiveness of bentonite using chitosan as a coagulant for raw water treatment was assessed in this study. The possible link between Alzheimer's disease with conventional aluminium based coagulants, has become an issue in water treatment. A method for treating water, using a natural approach as an alternate to achieve enhanced coagulation, might help to reduce risk to health, and be more environmentally friendly. One method for removing turbidity from raw water is by the adding of a primary coagulant (e.g., a natural polymer of chitosan) and a coagulant aid (e.g., natural clay of bentonite) to the raw water. A series of batch coagulation tests were conducted by jar test to obtain the optimum dosage, pH, ratio of coagulant aid and primary coagulant, and the efficiency time for the jar test, by evaluating the standard parameters, such as turbidity, pH, colour, aluminium, and chlorine. In terms of these parameters, chitosan:bentonite showed the best result, with a ratio of 30:70 in an optimal concentration of 1,000 mg/l with 0.15 g chitosan plus 0.35 g bentonite. The coagulants performed with an optimal pH of 5, with 30 min of mixing time during flocculation. However, the optimal pH condition during the jar test showed an improvement in the water alkalinity results, from pH 5 to 6.8. Coagulation with bentonite-chitosan successfully removed the turbidity with a highest efficiency of 98%. After water treatment in the optimal condition, results showed a great water quality standard, with 1.38 NTU, 10 TCU, 0.01 mg/l amount of chlorine and aluminium, and a pH of 6.8. However, data only showed slight differences of efficiency, between natural and conventional coagulants. In terms of the sludge volume index (SVI), the ratio of alum to bentonitechitosan was found to be 3:1 which indicated that less sludge was produced by the natural coagulant. In a cost comparison between these coagulants, based on a rough estimation, bentonitechitosan is nearly 10 times more expensive than the alum coagulant. However, with mass production and commercial availability, in the long run the price of chitosan could be reduced tremendously.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84864928065&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84864928065&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2166/ws.2012.016

DO - 10.2166/ws.2012.016

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84864928065

VL - 12

SP - 480

EP - 488

JO - Water Science and Technology: Water Supply

JF - Water Science and Technology: Water Supply

SN - 1606-9749

IS - 4

ER -