Pilot-scale production and the physicochemical properties of palm and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesels and their blends

A. S. Silitonga, H. H. Masjuki, Hwai Chyuan Ong, F. Kusumo, T.m. Indra Mahlia, A. H. Bahar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Biodiesel production has grown rapidly in response to the escalating price of fossil fuels in the last 20 years. Biodiesels appear to be one of the solutions to fulfil the increasing energy demands of the transportation sector since it can be used as substitutes of diesel in diesel engines without the need to modify the engines. The aim of this study is to evaluate the properties of biodiesels produced from crude palm and Calophyllum inophyllum oils using a pilot plant. A 50 L stainless steel jacketed reactor pilot plant is built to convert crude palm oil into palm methyl ester using transesterification process whereas crude C. inophyllum oil is processed using acid-catalysed esterification followed by alkaline-catalysed transesterification. The properties of the palm and C. inophyllum methyl esters are characterized according to the American society for testing and materials (ASTM) D6751 and European standard (EN) 14214 standards. In a latter section of this study, the palm and C. inophyllum methyl esters are blended with diesel fuel using different volume ratios. The oxidation stability of these blends is evaluated for two storage conditions for 90 days: (1) vacuum chamber and (2) room temperature. The oxidation stability of these blends is maintained for more than 12 h for 90 days when the fuels are stored in the vacuum chamber, which fulfils the biodiesel standards. Based on the results, both crude palm and C. inophyllum oils are potential feedstocks for industrial-scale biodiesel production and the biodiesels can likely replace diesel fuel in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)654-666
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Volume126
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jul 2016

Fingerprint

physicochemical property
Biodiesel
ester
Esters
Transesterification
Diesel fuels
Pilot plants
oil
Vacuum
oxidation
Oxidation
Palm oil
Esterification
diesel engine
Fossil fuels
Feedstocks
fossil fuel
diesel
crude oil
Diesel engines

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Cite this

Silitonga, A. S. ; Masjuki, H. H. ; Ong, Hwai Chyuan ; Kusumo, F. ; Mahlia, T.m. Indra ; Bahar, A. H. / Pilot-scale production and the physicochemical properties of palm and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesels and their blends. In: Journal of Cleaner Production. 2016 ; Vol. 126. pp. 654-666.
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Pilot-scale production and the physicochemical properties of palm and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesels and their blends. / Silitonga, A. S.; Masjuki, H. H.; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Kusumo, F.; Mahlia, T.m. Indra; Bahar, A. H.

In: Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 126, 10.07.2016, p. 654-666.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Silitonga, A. S.

AU - Masjuki, H. H.

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AU - Mahlia, T.m. Indra

AU - Bahar, A. H.

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