Microgrid (MG) technologies exhibit attractive features such as high power quality, reliability, sustainability and environmental friendly energy to the consumers using control and energy management system (EMS). However, renewable energy sources integrated with MGs are intermittent due to their stochastic behavior. Therefore, a proper control technique is essential to ensure a smooth transition of MG power to sensitive loads and the main grid. This study comprehensively reviews MG control strategies and their classifications in terms of protection, energy conversion, integration, advantages, disadvantages, and EMS. It focuses on conventional and advanced control methods that are used in MG applications for sustainable energy utilization. The algorithms, advantages, and disadvantages of conventional and advanced control methods are explained, and possible improvements or hybridization for future grid control applications is highlighted. Maximum Power Point Tracking control algorithms are also highlighted to maximize the power generation of renewable sources in the MG system. The rigorous review indicates that existing control technologies can be used for MG operation; however, further technological development of control methods is needed to achieve sustainable MG operation and management in the future. This review also underscores many factors, challenges, and problems related to the sustainable development of MG control technologies in next-generation smart grid applications. Thus, this review will strengthen the efforts to develop economic, efficient, and long-lasting MGs for future smart grid use.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Building and Construction
- Mechanical Engineering
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law