Mechanical and thermal properties of montmorillonite-reinforced polypropylene/rice husk hybrid nanocomposites

Khaliq Majeed, Ashfaq Ahmed, Muhammad Saifullah Abu Bakar, Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia, Naheed Saba, Azman Hassan, Mohammad Jawaid, Murid Hussain, Javed Iqbal, Zulfiqar Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the use of natural fibers as potential reinforcing fillers in polymer composites despite their hydrophilicity, which limits their widespread commercial application. The present study explored the fabrication of nanocomposites by melt mixing, using an internal mixer followed by a compression molding technique, and incorporating rice husk (RH) as a renewable natural filler, montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay as water-resistant reinforcing nanoparticles, and polypropylene-grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) as a compatibilizing agent. To correlate the effect ofMMTdelamination andMMT/RHdispersion in the composites, the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were studied. XRD analysis revealed delamination of MMT platelets due to an increase in their interlayer spacing, and SEM micrographs indicated improved dispersion of the filler(s) from the use of compatibilizers. The mechanical properties were improved by the incorporation of MMT into the PP/RH system and the reinforcing effect was remarkable as a result of the use of compatibilizing agent. Prolonged water exposure of the prepared samples decreased their tensile and flexural properties. Interestingly, the maximum decrease was observed for PP/RH composites and the minimum was for MMT-reinforced and PP-g-MAH-compatibilized PP/RH composites. DSC results revealed an increase in crystallinity with the addition of filler(s), while the melting and crystallization temperatures remained unaltered. TGA revealed that MMT addition and its delamination in the composite systems improved the thermal stability of the developed nanocomposites. Overall, we conclude that MMT nanoclay is an effective water-resistant reinforcing nanoparticle that enhances the durability, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of composites.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1557
JournalPolymers
Volume11
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Oct 2019

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Bentonite
Polypropylenes
Clay minerals
Nanocomposites
Thermodynamic properties
Mechanical properties
Fillers
Composite materials
Maleic Anhydrides
Maleic anhydride
Delamination
Water
Thermodynamic stability
Nanoparticles
Compression molding
Natural fibers
Compatibilizers
Hydrophilicity
Platelets
Crystallization

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Polymers and Plastics

Cite this

Majeed, Khaliq ; Ahmed, Ashfaq ; Abu Bakar, Muhammad Saifullah ; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra ; Saba, Naheed ; Hassan, Azman ; Jawaid, Mohammad ; Hussain, Murid ; Iqbal, Javed ; Ali, Zulfiqar. / Mechanical and thermal properties of montmorillonite-reinforced polypropylene/rice husk hybrid nanocomposites. In: Polymers. 2019 ; Vol. 11, No. 10.
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Majeed, K, Ahmed, A, Abu Bakar, MS, Mahlia, TMI, Saba, N, Hassan, A, Jawaid, M, Hussain, M, Iqbal, J & Ali, Z 2019, 'Mechanical and thermal properties of montmorillonite-reinforced polypropylene/rice husk hybrid nanocomposites', Polymers, vol. 11, no. 10, 1557. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101557

Mechanical and thermal properties of montmorillonite-reinforced polypropylene/rice husk hybrid nanocomposites. / Majeed, Khaliq; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Abu Bakar, Muhammad Saifullah; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra; Saba, Naheed; Hassan, Azman; Jawaid, Mohammad; Hussain, Murid; Iqbal, Javed; Ali, Zulfiqar.

In: Polymers, Vol. 11, No. 10, 1557, 01.10.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Mechanical and thermal properties of montmorillonite-reinforced polypropylene/rice husk hybrid nanocomposites

AU - Majeed, Khaliq

AU - Ahmed, Ashfaq

AU - Abu Bakar, Muhammad Saifullah

AU - Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra

AU - Saba, Naheed

AU - Hassan, Azman

AU - Jawaid, Mohammad

AU - Hussain, Murid

AU - Iqbal, Javed

AU - Ali, Zulfiqar

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AB - In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the use of natural fibers as potential reinforcing fillers in polymer composites despite their hydrophilicity, which limits their widespread commercial application. The present study explored the fabrication of nanocomposites by melt mixing, using an internal mixer followed by a compression molding technique, and incorporating rice husk (RH) as a renewable natural filler, montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay as water-resistant reinforcing nanoparticles, and polypropylene-grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) as a compatibilizing agent. To correlate the effect ofMMTdelamination andMMT/RHdispersion in the composites, the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were studied. XRD analysis revealed delamination of MMT platelets due to an increase in their interlayer spacing, and SEM micrographs indicated improved dispersion of the filler(s) from the use of compatibilizers. The mechanical properties were improved by the incorporation of MMT into the PP/RH system and the reinforcing effect was remarkable as a result of the use of compatibilizing agent. Prolonged water exposure of the prepared samples decreased their tensile and flexural properties. Interestingly, the maximum decrease was observed for PP/RH composites and the minimum was for MMT-reinforced and PP-g-MAH-compatibilized PP/RH composites. DSC results revealed an increase in crystallinity with the addition of filler(s), while the melting and crystallization temperatures remained unaltered. TGA revealed that MMT addition and its delamination in the composite systems improved the thermal stability of the developed nanocomposites. Overall, we conclude that MMT nanoclay is an effective water-resistant reinforcing nanoparticle that enhances the durability, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of composites.

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