Nget Hong Tan and M. N. Saifuddin. Isolation and characterization of a hemorrhagin from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra). Toxicon 28, 385-392, 1990.-The major hemorrhagin (termed hannahtoxin) of the venom of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration followed by a second DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. Proteolytic activity was associated with the hemorrhagic activity throughout the purification procedures. Hannahtoxin constituted approximately 2% of the crude venom. It had an isoelectric point of 5.3, a carbohydrate content of 12%, a mol. wt of 66,000 as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 63,000 as determined by gel filtration. It contains 1 mole of Zn per mole of protein. The minimum hemorrhage doses for hannahtoxin are 0.7 μg and 75 μg, respectively, in rabbits and in mice. Hannahtoxin was not lethal to mice at a dose of 2 mg/kg (i.v.) but killed rabbits at doses above 0.18 mg/kg (i.v.). It liberated protein from rabbit glomerular basement membrane but not rat glomerular basement membrane. Treatment of the hemorrhagin with EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline eliminated both the proteolytic and hemorrhagic activities completely.
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