Extraction of metal oxides from coal bottom ash by carbon reduction and chemical leaching

Zarina Itam, Salmia Beddu, D. Mohammad, Nur Liyana Mohd Kamal, M. M. Zainoodin, Agusril Syamsir, N. A. Razak, Z. A.A. Hamid

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

1 Citation (Scopus)


Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) is an inevitable waste product that accumulates up to a significant volume each year. These vast volumes pose a problem in the disposal of the coal which conventionally is loaded onto ash dumps located landfill. There are several papers that have studied the chemical and physical properties of CBA, and it was found that CBA is composed of Silica (SiO2), Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3), Alumina (Al2O3), Calcium Oxide (CaO), Potassium Oxide (K2O), Sodium Oxide (Na2O), Magnesium Oxide (MgO), Titanium Oxide (TiO2), Phosphorous Pentoxide (P2O5), and Sulfur Trioxide (SO3). The objective of this research is to establish the ideal extraction and purification methods for metal oxides. Extraction of the metal oxides will be conducted by means of carbon reduction and chemical leaching, and after which, the metal oxides will be separated. It is expected that metal oxides can be successfully extracted from the CBA, and hence promoting sustainability, and the potential of the metal oxides to be used in many different industries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)727-735
Number of pages9
JournalMaterials Today: Proceedings
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2019
Event6th International Conference on Recent Advances in Materials, Minerals and Environment, RAMM 2018 - Penang, Malaysia
Duration: 27 Nov 201829 Nov 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)

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