Evaluation of Air-Gap Stacked Capacitive Antennas for Lightning Remote Sensing

B. Y. Seah, M. R. Ahmad, Y. J. Ong, N. A. Shairi, D. Periannan, M. H.M. Sabri, M. R.M. Esa, Z. Abdul-Malek, S. A. Mohammad, M. Z.A.A. Aziz, N. Yusop, M. M. Ismail, G. Lu, V. Cooray, Ammar Ahmed Nasser Al-Kahtani, M. Z.A.Ab Kadir

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Abstract

This paper evaluates the capacitive antenna performance (sensitivity and frequency shifting) as a lightning sensor in different antenna design structures. Two experiments were carried out, Experiment A - using two different structure antennas, an A3 size capacitive antenna and a quarter A4- sized capacitive antenna, capturing the electric field (E-field) generated by the small spark at a distance of 1 meter away from both antennas. The results were taken in a ratio form of the 1st pulse amplitude captured by quarter A4 size antenna verses 1st pulse amplitude of the waveform captured by A3 antenna for each corresponding spark. Same set up and measurement were taken during the Experiment B except for the quarter A4 size antenna was now being slotted with 6 copper plates were slotted within the gap between the top plate and bottom plate. The result from Experiment A showed an average ratio at 0.1957 with a range of 0.0333 to 0.3085 while the results of Experiment B showed the average value laid at 0.2606 within the range of 0.1581 to 0.4510. The comparison results of Experiment A with Experiment B gave an increment of the sensitivity of the quarter A4 antenna from no stack to fully stacked antenna. However, there was also a significant frequency shifting of the quarter A4 antenna with the change of antenna structure (15% for quarter A4 capacitive antenna without stack; 20% for quarter A4 stacked capacitive antenna).

Original languageEnglish
Article number012002
JournalIOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Volume228
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2019
Event3rd International Conference on Science and Technology Applications in Climate Change, STACLIM 2018 - Ayer Keroh. Malacca, Malaysia
Duration: 13 Nov 201815 Nov 2018

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lightning
antenna
remote sensing
air
experiment
evaluation
electric field

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

Cite this

Seah, B. Y., Ahmad, M. R., Ong, Y. J., Shairi, N. A., Periannan, D., Sabri, M. H. M., ... Kadir, M. Z. A. A. (2019). Evaluation of Air-Gap Stacked Capacitive Antennas for Lightning Remote Sensing. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 228(1), [012002]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/228/1/012002
Seah, B. Y. ; Ahmad, M. R. ; Ong, Y. J. ; Shairi, N. A. ; Periannan, D. ; Sabri, M. H.M. ; Esa, M. R.M. ; Abdul-Malek, Z. ; Mohammad, S. A. ; Aziz, M. Z.A.A. ; Yusop, N. ; Ismail, M. M. ; Lu, G. ; Cooray, V. ; Nasser Al-Kahtani, Ammar Ahmed ; Kadir, M. Z.A.Ab. / Evaluation of Air-Gap Stacked Capacitive Antennas for Lightning Remote Sensing. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2019 ; Vol. 228, No. 1.
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title = "Evaluation of Air-Gap Stacked Capacitive Antennas for Lightning Remote Sensing",
abstract = "This paper evaluates the capacitive antenna performance (sensitivity and frequency shifting) as a lightning sensor in different antenna design structures. Two experiments were carried out, Experiment A - using two different structure antennas, an A3 size capacitive antenna and a quarter A4- sized capacitive antenna, capturing the electric field (E-field) generated by the small spark at a distance of 1 meter away from both antennas. The results were taken in a ratio form of the 1st pulse amplitude captured by quarter A4 size antenna verses 1st pulse amplitude of the waveform captured by A3 antenna for each corresponding spark. Same set up and measurement were taken during the Experiment B except for the quarter A4 size antenna was now being slotted with 6 copper plates were slotted within the gap between the top plate and bottom plate. The result from Experiment A showed an average ratio at 0.1957 with a range of 0.0333 to 0.3085 while the results of Experiment B showed the average value laid at 0.2606 within the range of 0.1581 to 0.4510. The comparison results of Experiment A with Experiment B gave an increment of the sensitivity of the quarter A4 antenna from no stack to fully stacked antenna. However, there was also a significant frequency shifting of the quarter A4 antenna with the change of antenna structure (15{\%} for quarter A4 capacitive antenna without stack; 20{\%} for quarter A4 stacked capacitive antenna).",
author = "Seah, {B. Y.} and Ahmad, {M. R.} and Ong, {Y. J.} and Shairi, {N. A.} and D. Periannan and Sabri, {M. H.M.} and Esa, {M. R.M.} and Z. Abdul-Malek and Mohammad, {S. A.} and Aziz, {M. Z.A.A.} and N. Yusop and Ismail, {M. M.} and G. Lu and V. Cooray and {Nasser Al-Kahtani}, {Ammar Ahmed} and Kadir, {M. Z.A.Ab}",
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Seah, BY, Ahmad, MR, Ong, YJ, Shairi, NA, Periannan, D, Sabri, MHM, Esa, MRM, Abdul-Malek, Z, Mohammad, SA, Aziz, MZAA, Yusop, N, Ismail, MM, Lu, G, Cooray, V, Nasser Al-Kahtani, AA & Kadir, MZAA 2019, 'Evaluation of Air-Gap Stacked Capacitive Antennas for Lightning Remote Sensing', IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 228, no. 1, 012002. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/228/1/012002

Evaluation of Air-Gap Stacked Capacitive Antennas for Lightning Remote Sensing. / Seah, B. Y.; Ahmad, M. R.; Ong, Y. J.; Shairi, N. A.; Periannan, D.; Sabri, M. H.M.; Esa, M. R.M.; Abdul-Malek, Z.; Mohammad, S. A.; Aziz, M. Z.A.A.; Yusop, N.; Ismail, M. M.; Lu, G.; Cooray, V.; Nasser Al-Kahtani, Ammar Ahmed; Kadir, M. Z.A.Ab.

In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 228, No. 1, 012002, 15.02.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluation of Air-Gap Stacked Capacitive Antennas for Lightning Remote Sensing

AU - Seah, B. Y.

AU - Ahmad, M. R.

AU - Ong, Y. J.

AU - Shairi, N. A.

AU - Periannan, D.

AU - Sabri, M. H.M.

AU - Esa, M. R.M.

AU - Abdul-Malek, Z.

AU - Mohammad, S. A.

AU - Aziz, M. Z.A.A.

AU - Yusop, N.

AU - Ismail, M. M.

AU - Lu, G.

AU - Cooray, V.

AU - Nasser Al-Kahtani, Ammar Ahmed

AU - Kadir, M. Z.A.Ab

PY - 2019/2/15

Y1 - 2019/2/15

N2 - This paper evaluates the capacitive antenna performance (sensitivity and frequency shifting) as a lightning sensor in different antenna design structures. Two experiments were carried out, Experiment A - using two different structure antennas, an A3 size capacitive antenna and a quarter A4- sized capacitive antenna, capturing the electric field (E-field) generated by the small spark at a distance of 1 meter away from both antennas. The results were taken in a ratio form of the 1st pulse amplitude captured by quarter A4 size antenna verses 1st pulse amplitude of the waveform captured by A3 antenna for each corresponding spark. Same set up and measurement were taken during the Experiment B except for the quarter A4 size antenna was now being slotted with 6 copper plates were slotted within the gap between the top plate and bottom plate. The result from Experiment A showed an average ratio at 0.1957 with a range of 0.0333 to 0.3085 while the results of Experiment B showed the average value laid at 0.2606 within the range of 0.1581 to 0.4510. The comparison results of Experiment A with Experiment B gave an increment of the sensitivity of the quarter A4 antenna from no stack to fully stacked antenna. However, there was also a significant frequency shifting of the quarter A4 antenna with the change of antenna structure (15% for quarter A4 capacitive antenna without stack; 20% for quarter A4 stacked capacitive antenna).

AB - This paper evaluates the capacitive antenna performance (sensitivity and frequency shifting) as a lightning sensor in different antenna design structures. Two experiments were carried out, Experiment A - using two different structure antennas, an A3 size capacitive antenna and a quarter A4- sized capacitive antenna, capturing the electric field (E-field) generated by the small spark at a distance of 1 meter away from both antennas. The results were taken in a ratio form of the 1st pulse amplitude captured by quarter A4 size antenna verses 1st pulse amplitude of the waveform captured by A3 antenna for each corresponding spark. Same set up and measurement were taken during the Experiment B except for the quarter A4 size antenna was now being slotted with 6 copper plates were slotted within the gap between the top plate and bottom plate. The result from Experiment A showed an average ratio at 0.1957 with a range of 0.0333 to 0.3085 while the results of Experiment B showed the average value laid at 0.2606 within the range of 0.1581 to 0.4510. The comparison results of Experiment A with Experiment B gave an increment of the sensitivity of the quarter A4 antenna from no stack to fully stacked antenna. However, there was also a significant frequency shifting of the quarter A4 antenna with the change of antenna structure (15% for quarter A4 capacitive antenna without stack; 20% for quarter A4 stacked capacitive antenna).

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DO - 10.1088/1755-1315/228/1/012002

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JO - IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science

JF - IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science

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