Enhancement of the work function of indium tin oxide by surface modification using caesium fluoride

Thomas J. Whitcher, Keat Hoe Yeoh, Yi Bin Calvin Ng, Noor Azrina Talik, Chong Lim Chua, Kai Lin Woon, Narong Chanlek, Hideki Nakajima, Thanit Saisopa, Prayoon Songsiriritthigul, Steffen Oswald, Boon Kar Yap

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The work function of indium tin oxide (ITO) was modified using caesium fluoride (CsF). Various concentrations of CsF was spin-coated on top of ITO and baked while the residual CsF was washed away with DI water. The work function of all the ITO samples was measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and it was found that the work function of ITO reaches as high as 5.75 eV. The work function rapidly increases with small concentrations of CsF solution and then decreases for higher concentrations. Using atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the cause was determined to be the change in surface roughness and the oxygen concentration, with the former having a much greater influence on the work function than the latter. The current density of ITO/poly(vinylcarbazole)/Al hole-only devices using the modified ITO increases by more than seven orders of magnitude compared with the control device.

Original languageEnglish
Article number475102
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume46
Issue number47
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2013

Fingerprint

cesium fluorides
Cesium
Tin oxides
indium oxides
Indium
tin oxides
Surface treatment
augmentation
photoelectron spectroscopy
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
control equipment
ultraviolet spectroscopy
Photoelectron spectroscopy
x ray spectroscopy
indium tin oxide
cesium fluoride
Atomic force microscopy
surface roughness
Current density
Surface roughness

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

Whitcher, Thomas J. ; Yeoh, Keat Hoe ; Ng, Yi Bin Calvin ; Talik, Noor Azrina ; Chua, Chong Lim ; Woon, Kai Lin ; Chanlek, Narong ; Nakajima, Hideki ; Saisopa, Thanit ; Songsiriritthigul, Prayoon ; Oswald, Steffen ; Yap, Boon Kar. / Enhancement of the work function of indium tin oxide by surface modification using caesium fluoride. In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2013 ; Vol. 46, No. 47.
@article{645f5936e82c44e98ee1137464b42456,
title = "Enhancement of the work function of indium tin oxide by surface modification using caesium fluoride",
abstract = "The work function of indium tin oxide (ITO) was modified using caesium fluoride (CsF). Various concentrations of CsF was spin-coated on top of ITO and baked while the residual CsF was washed away with DI water. The work function of all the ITO samples was measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and it was found that the work function of ITO reaches as high as 5.75 eV. The work function rapidly increases with small concentrations of CsF solution and then decreases for higher concentrations. Using atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the cause was determined to be the change in surface roughness and the oxygen concentration, with the former having a much greater influence on the work function than the latter. The current density of ITO/poly(vinylcarbazole)/Al hole-only devices using the modified ITO increases by more than seven orders of magnitude compared with the control device.",
author = "Whitcher, {Thomas J.} and Yeoh, {Keat Hoe} and Ng, {Yi Bin Calvin} and Talik, {Noor Azrina} and Chua, {Chong Lim} and Woon, {Kai Lin} and Narong Chanlek and Hideki Nakajima and Thanit Saisopa and Prayoon Songsiriritthigul and Steffen Oswald and Yap, {Boon Kar}",
year = "2013",
month = "11",
day = "27",
doi = "10.1088/0022-3727/46/47/475102",
language = "English",
volume = "46",
journal = "Journal Physics D: Applied Physics",
issn = "0022-3727",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "47",

}

Whitcher, TJ, Yeoh, KH, Ng, YBC, Talik, NA, Chua, CL, Woon, KL, Chanlek, N, Nakajima, H, Saisopa, T, Songsiriritthigul, P, Oswald, S & Yap, BK 2013, 'Enhancement of the work function of indium tin oxide by surface modification using caesium fluoride', Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 46, no. 47, 475102. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/46/47/475102

Enhancement of the work function of indium tin oxide by surface modification using caesium fluoride. / Whitcher, Thomas J.; Yeoh, Keat Hoe; Ng, Yi Bin Calvin; Talik, Noor Azrina; Chua, Chong Lim; Woon, Kai Lin; Chanlek, Narong; Nakajima, Hideki; Saisopa, Thanit; Songsiriritthigul, Prayoon; Oswald, Steffen; Yap, Boon Kar.

In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 46, No. 47, 475102, 27.11.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Enhancement of the work function of indium tin oxide by surface modification using caesium fluoride

AU - Whitcher, Thomas J.

AU - Yeoh, Keat Hoe

AU - Ng, Yi Bin Calvin

AU - Talik, Noor Azrina

AU - Chua, Chong Lim

AU - Woon, Kai Lin

AU - Chanlek, Narong

AU - Nakajima, Hideki

AU - Saisopa, Thanit

AU - Songsiriritthigul, Prayoon

AU - Oswald, Steffen

AU - Yap, Boon Kar

PY - 2013/11/27

Y1 - 2013/11/27

N2 - The work function of indium tin oxide (ITO) was modified using caesium fluoride (CsF). Various concentrations of CsF was spin-coated on top of ITO and baked while the residual CsF was washed away with DI water. The work function of all the ITO samples was measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and it was found that the work function of ITO reaches as high as 5.75 eV. The work function rapidly increases with small concentrations of CsF solution and then decreases for higher concentrations. Using atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the cause was determined to be the change in surface roughness and the oxygen concentration, with the former having a much greater influence on the work function than the latter. The current density of ITO/poly(vinylcarbazole)/Al hole-only devices using the modified ITO increases by more than seven orders of magnitude compared with the control device.

AB - The work function of indium tin oxide (ITO) was modified using caesium fluoride (CsF). Various concentrations of CsF was spin-coated on top of ITO and baked while the residual CsF was washed away with DI water. The work function of all the ITO samples was measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and it was found that the work function of ITO reaches as high as 5.75 eV. The work function rapidly increases with small concentrations of CsF solution and then decreases for higher concentrations. Using atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the cause was determined to be the change in surface roughness and the oxygen concentration, with the former having a much greater influence on the work function than the latter. The current density of ITO/poly(vinylcarbazole)/Al hole-only devices using the modified ITO increases by more than seven orders of magnitude compared with the control device.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84887829986&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84887829986&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/0022-3727/46/47/475102

DO - 10.1088/0022-3727/46/47/475102

M3 - Article

VL - 46

JO - Journal Physics D: Applied Physics

JF - Journal Physics D: Applied Physics

SN - 0022-3727

IS - 47

M1 - 475102

ER -