In this paper, the efficient 3D placement of UAV as an aerial base station in providing wireless coverage for users in a small and large coverage area is investigated. In the case of providing wireless coverage for outdoor and indoor users in a small area, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and K-means with Ternary Search (KTS) algorithms are invoked to find an efficient 3D location of a single UAV with the objective of minimizing its required transmit power. It was observed that a single UAV at the 3D location found using the PSO algorithm requires less transmit power, by a factor of 1/5 compared to that when using the KTS algorithm. In the case of providing wireless coverage for users in three different shapes of a large coverage area, namely square, rectangle and circular regions, the problems of finding an efficient placement of multiple UAVs equipped with a directional antenna are formulated with the objective to maximize the coverage area and coverage density using the Circle Packing Theory (CPT). Then, the UAV efficient altitude placement is formulated with the objective of minimizing its required transmit power. It is observed that the large number of UAVs does not necessarily result in the maximum coverage density. Based on the simulation results, the deployment of 16, 19 and 26 UAVs is capable of providing the maximum coverage density of 78.5%, 82.5% and 80.3% for the case of a square region with the dimensions of 2 km × 2 km, a rectangle region with the dimensions of 6 km × 1.8 km and a circular region with the radius of 1.125 km, respectively. These observations are obtained when the UAVs are located at the optimum altitude, where the required transmit power for each UAV is reasonably small.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering