This study aims to develop an accurate model of a charge equalization controller (CEC) that manages individual cell monitoring and equalizing by charging and discharging series-connected lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cells. In this concept, an intelligent control algorithm is developed to activate bidirectional cell switches and control direct current (DC)-DC converter switches along with pulse width modulation (PWM) generation. Individual models of an electric vehicle (EV)-sustainable Li-ion battery, optimal power rating, a bidirectional flyback DC-DC converter, and charging and discharging controllers are integrated to develop a small-scale CEC model that can be implemented for 10 series-connected Li-ion battery cells. Results show that the charge equalization controller operates at 91% efficiency and performs well in equalizing both overdischarged and overcharged cells on time. Moreover, the outputs of the CEC model show that the desired balancing level occurs at 2% of state of charge difference and that all cells are operated within a normal range. The configuration, execution, control, power loss, cost, size, and efficiency of the developed CEC model are compared with those of existing controllers. The proposed model is proven suitable for high-tech storage systems toward the advancement of sustainable EV technologies and renewable source of applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Energy (miscellaneous)
- Control and Optimization
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering