Characterization study for polymer core solder balls under AC and TC reliability test

Cai Hui Tan, Boon Kar Yap, Chou Yong Tan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Since Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) Regulation came into effect in year 2006 due to the hazardous effects of lead to human's health and toxicity for environment, Ball Grid Array (BGA) semiconductor chip are widely used for many electronic applications including portable, automotive and telecommunication products that require stringent thermal and mechanical requirements. However, dropped balls in lead-free BGA products due to poor solder joint strength caused by reliability stress are a major concern in the semiconductor industries. A new technology with polymer core inside the solder ball (polymer core/Cu/Sn) is integrated to improve the solder joint strength. The polymer core inside the solder ball is function to dissipate the stress better as compared to the lead-free solder ball. The diffusion rate of Cu is faster than the diffusion rate of Sn, thus Kirkendall voids are tends to form in between the interface at the Cu and Sn layer, especially after subjected to the high temperature reliability stress. This would affect the solder joint strength and causing drop ball issue. To overcome this, an additional of 1 μm Ni layer is coated on the Cu (polymer core/Cu/Sn/Ni) to reduce the diffusion from Cu to Sn, to avoid Kirkendall voids formation. This research work studies the performance of the solder ball shear strength and IMC thickness of two types of polymer core solder balls applied to BGA device. In this research, polymer core solder balls were went through under AC (Autoclave) and TC (Temperature Cycle) reliability test up to 144 hours and 1000 cycles, respectively. Solder ball shear strength test was conducted via Dage 4000 series bond tester and IMC thickness measurement via cold mount cross-section. From the results of the two types of polymer core solder ball, observed that, the ball shear strength were decreased with increased of aging time, while IMC thicknesses were increased with increase of aging time. This is probably due to the rapid Cu diffusion into the Cu core interface resulting in lower shear strength and thicker IMC. From this research work, it can be concluded that the polymer core solder ball with an additional Ni layer showed better performance than the polymer core solder ball without Ni layer, after subjected to the AC and TC reliability test. This is due to the Ni layer could limit the Cu diffusion into the solder thus resulting in good solder joint strength and drop reliability performance as well as reduced crack issues caused from Kirkendall voids.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2014 IEEE 36th International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference, IEMT 2014
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Volume2015-June
ISBN (Electronic)9781479982097
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2015
Event2014 36th IEEE International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference, IEMT 2014 - Johor, Malaysia
Duration: 11 Nov 201413 Nov 2014

Other

Other2014 36th IEEE International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference, IEMT 2014
CountryMalaysia
CityJohor
Period11/11/1413/11/14

Fingerprint

Autoclaves
Soldering alloys
Polymers
Temperature
Shear strength
Ball grid arrays
Aging of materials
Semiconductor materials
Thickness measurement
Telecommunication
Toxicity

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Tan, C. H., Yap, B. K., & Tan, C. Y. (2015). Characterization study for polymer core solder balls under AC and TC reliability test. In 2014 IEEE 36th International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference, IEMT 2014 (Vol. 2015-June). [7123072] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1109/IEMT.2014.7123072
Tan, Cai Hui ; Yap, Boon Kar ; Tan, Chou Yong. / Characterization study for polymer core solder balls under AC and TC reliability test. 2014 IEEE 36th International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference, IEMT 2014. Vol. 2015-June Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015.
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Tan, CH, Yap, BK & Tan, CY 2015, Characterization study for polymer core solder balls under AC and TC reliability test. in 2014 IEEE 36th International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference, IEMT 2014. vol. 2015-June, 7123072, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2014 36th IEEE International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference, IEMT 2014, Johor, Malaysia, 11/11/14. https://doi.org/10.1109/IEMT.2014.7123072

Characterization study for polymer core solder balls under AC and TC reliability test. / Tan, Cai Hui; Yap, Boon Kar; Tan, Chou Yong.

2014 IEEE 36th International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference, IEMT 2014. Vol. 2015-June Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015. 7123072.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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N2 - Since Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) Regulation came into effect in year 2006 due to the hazardous effects of lead to human's health and toxicity for environment, Ball Grid Array (BGA) semiconductor chip are widely used for many electronic applications including portable, automotive and telecommunication products that require stringent thermal and mechanical requirements. However, dropped balls in lead-free BGA products due to poor solder joint strength caused by reliability stress are a major concern in the semiconductor industries. A new technology with polymer core inside the solder ball (polymer core/Cu/Sn) is integrated to improve the solder joint strength. The polymer core inside the solder ball is function to dissipate the stress better as compared to the lead-free solder ball. The diffusion rate of Cu is faster than the diffusion rate of Sn, thus Kirkendall voids are tends to form in between the interface at the Cu and Sn layer, especially after subjected to the high temperature reliability stress. This would affect the solder joint strength and causing drop ball issue. To overcome this, an additional of 1 μm Ni layer is coated on the Cu (polymer core/Cu/Sn/Ni) to reduce the diffusion from Cu to Sn, to avoid Kirkendall voids formation. This research work studies the performance of the solder ball shear strength and IMC thickness of two types of polymer core solder balls applied to BGA device. In this research, polymer core solder balls were went through under AC (Autoclave) and TC (Temperature Cycle) reliability test up to 144 hours and 1000 cycles, respectively. Solder ball shear strength test was conducted via Dage 4000 series bond tester and IMC thickness measurement via cold mount cross-section. From the results of the two types of polymer core solder ball, observed that, the ball shear strength were decreased with increased of aging time, while IMC thicknesses were increased with increase of aging time. This is probably due to the rapid Cu diffusion into the Cu core interface resulting in lower shear strength and thicker IMC. From this research work, it can be concluded that the polymer core solder ball with an additional Ni layer showed better performance than the polymer core solder ball without Ni layer, after subjected to the AC and TC reliability test. This is due to the Ni layer could limit the Cu diffusion into the solder thus resulting in good solder joint strength and drop reliability performance as well as reduced crack issues caused from Kirkendall voids.

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Tan CH, Yap BK, Tan CY. Characterization study for polymer core solder balls under AC and TC reliability test. In 2014 IEEE 36th International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference, IEMT 2014. Vol. 2015-June. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. 2015. 7123072 https://doi.org/10.1109/IEMT.2014.7123072