The potential of Caulerpa lentillifera, Gracilaria coronopifolia and Chaetomorpha linum, as biomass feedstock was investigated in this study. It was concluded that seaweed is more suitable for bio-based products synthesis, i.e., bioplastic and bio-lubricants, instead of biofuels due to its relatively low calorific value (~12 MJ/kg). Since seaweed has high moisture content (~80%), hydrothermal liquefaction is recommended, and its efficiency can be further enhanced through microwave technology. Besides, it is found that the thermal degradation of seaweed was best described with the reaction order of 1. The kinetic results also indicated that seaweed consists of lower activation energy (<30 kJ/mol) in comparison with terrestrial biomass (50–170 kJ/mol). Hence, seaweed has a high potential to be used as biomass feedstock, particularly Chaetomorpha linum, as it has no conflict with other interests. Lastly, acetic-acid pre-treatment was suggested to be an optional process in order to increase the algal conversion efficiency as it can reduce up to 25% of ash content.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Energy (miscellaneous)
- Control and Optimization
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering