Biomass is a promising sustainable and renewable energy source, due to its high diversity of sources, and as it is profusely obtainable everywhere in the world. It is the third most important fuel source used to generate electricity and for thermal applications, as 50% of the global population depends on biomass. The increase in availability and technological developments of recent years allow the use of biomass as a renewable energy source with low levels of emissions and environmental impacts. Biomass energy can be in the forms of biogas, bio-liquid, and bio-solid fuels. It can be used to replace fossil fuels in the power and transportation sectors. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biomass, the pyrolysis process to obtain bio-oil, the impact of different pyrolysis technology (for example, temperature and speed of pyrolysis process), and the impact of various reactors. The paper also discusses different pyrolysis products, their yields, and factors affecting biomass products, including the present status of the pyrolysis process and future challenges. This study concluded that the characteristics of pyrolysis products depend on the biomass used, and what the pyrolysis product, such as bio-oil, can contribute to the local economy. Finally, more research, along with government subsidies and technology transfer, is needed to tackle the future challenges of the development of pyrolysis technology.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Energy (miscellaneous)
- Control and Optimization
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering