An investigation on titanium doping in reduced graphene oxide by RF magnetron sputtering for dye-sensitized solar cells

Foo Wah Low, Chin Wei Lai, Nilofar Asim, Md Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad Alghoul, Sieh Kiong Tiong, Nowshad Amin

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1 Citation (Scopus)


A study investigating the effects of titanium (Ti)atoms sputtered from different sources on substrate distance was attempted in order to effectively dope a reduced graphene oxide (rGO)thin film surface. Factors such as crystallinity, morphology, phase formation, light absorption, and surface chemical state of rGO-TiO2 were investigated. As a result, functional groups or chemical states revealed the presence of Ti-O-C in rGO-TiO2 nanocomposite after the sputtering process. The titanium source from the target was of Ti3+ species as determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that average sized Ti3+ ions of around 59.4 nm were incorporated into the rGO nanosheet. A customized Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)device was fabricated with the photo-anode consisting of sputtered rGO-TiO2 nanocomposite. After optimization, the Ti target allocated with 10 cm-apart FTO glass-coated rGO nanosheet and 0.67 cm2 active area exhibited an ideal PCE of 6.60%, which is remarkably higher than the usual 5 cm sputtering distance the sample (1.90%)had achieved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-18
Number of pages9
JournalSolar Energy
Publication statusPublished - 01 Aug 2019


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)

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