A systematic review of technological issues in monitoring pilgrims’ health during hajj: Current state, challenges and future directions

Shah Murtaza Rashid Al Masud, Asmidar Abu Bakar, Salman Yussof

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)


Hajj pilgrimage has been the focus of public health initiatives for centuries because it is one of the biggest and oldest annual mass gatherings in the world. But a little is done to objectively monitor pilgrims’ health during Hajj who has been suffering from infectious and chronic diseases. The main objective of this study is to identify the technological issues in monitoring pilgrims’ health in Hajj environment. We searched and reviewed articles from several scholarly databases along with relevant databases and web portals of the government of Saudi Arabia and World Health Organization (WHO) from the year 2012 to 2017 to identify the technologies and their limitations for pilgrims’ health monitoring during Hajj. We explored the articles by using the search criteria “Hajj” AND “pilgrims’ health monitoring” AND “technology” AND “medicine” OR “tracking” OR “infectious and chronic diseases”. Only 15 research articles out of 134 articles fulfilled the selection criteria. During the study it is found that the common health problems during Hajj are mainly categorized into chronic or non-communicable diseases (62.5%) and infectious or communicable diseases (37.5%). Where, the major health burdens are respiratory disease, heat stroke or heat attack, cardiovascular or heart disease, Gastroentritis infection, diabetes, and influenza with high faver. Literature review reveals that so far four different types of health facilities are proposed by the research community, among which health records and health guidelines are 40%, pilgrims’ tracking to avoid risk is 27%, infectious diseases surveillance or prevention systems 20%, and monitoring of pilgrims’ stress and health condition e.g. pulse and temperature monitoring is about 13%. However, not a single research has shown how to provide real-time health facilities to pilgrims who suffer from various chronic and infectious diseases at Hajj ritual sites. During Hajj it is urgent to ensure immediate healthcare facility and proper mecication in order to secure pilgrims’ lives. Our present study is limited to focus on the perspectives of deploying Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) which requires further investigation considering overcrowded and harsh environment at Hajj ritual sites. In this research, a future direction ensuring pilgrims’ real-time health monitoring and providing adequate medical facilities during Hajj is also depicted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1935-1950
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2018


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)

Cite this