Charging–discharging coordination between electric vehicles and the power grid is gaining interest as a de-carbonization tool and provider of ancillary services. In electric vehicle applications, the aggregator acts as the intelligent mediator between the power grid and the vehicle. In recent years, researchers have introduced the concepts of aggregated energy management, centralized-decentralized planning, and ideal charging–discharging through improved technologies and integrated energy planning. These methods have the technical ability to adapt the distribution network according to load, aggregator-controlled optimal charging–discharging, demand management systems, strategic load assessments, and management. A comprehensive review suggests that large-scale electric vehicle charging technologies for controlled charging–discharging is becoming a pitfall within the grid and distribution network. This paper reviews several controlled charging–discharging issues with respect to system performance, such as overloading, deteriorating power quality, and power loss. Thus, it highlights a new approach in the form of multistage hierarchical controlled charging–discharging. The challenges and issues faced by electric vehicle applications are also discussed from the aggregator's point of view.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering