One of the best management practices (BMPs) for stormwater quality and quantity control is a bioretention system. The removal efficiency of different pollutants under this system is generally satisfactory, except for nitrogen which is deficient in certain bioretention systems. Nitrogen has a complex biogeochemical cycle, and thus the removal processes of nitrogen are typically slower than other pollutants. This study summarizes recent studies that have focused on nitrogen removal for urban stormwater runoff and discusses the latest advances in bioretention systems. The performance, influencing factors, and design enhancements are comprehensively reviewed in this paper. The review of current literature reveals that a bioretention system shows great promise due to its ability to remove nitrogen from stormwater runoff. Combining nitrification and denitrification zones with the addition of a carbon source and selecting different plant species promote nitrogen removal. Nevertheless, more studies on nitrogen transformations in a bioretention system and the relationships between different design factors need to be undertaken.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law