### Abstract

Solar power generation is intermittent in nature. It is nearly impossible for a photovoltaic (PV) system to supply power continuously and consistently to a varying load. Operating a controllable source like a fuel cell in parallel with PV can be a solution to supply power to variable loads. In order to coordinate the power supply from fuel cells and PVs, a power management system needs to be designed for the microgrid system. This paper presents a power management system for a grid-connected PV and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), considering variation in the load and solar radiation. The objective of the proposed system is to minimize the power drawn from the grid and operate the SOFC within a specific power range. Since the PV is operated at the maximum power point, the power management involves the control of SOFC active power where a proportional and integral (PI) controller is used. The control parameters of the PI controller K_{p} (proportional constant) and T_{i} (integral time constant) are determined by the genetic algorithm (GA) and simplex method. In addition, a fuzzy logic controller is also developed to generate appropriate control parameters for the PI controller. The performance of the controllers is evaluated by minimizing the integral of time multiplied by absolute error (ITAE) criterion. Simulation results showed that the fuzzy-based PI controller outperforms the PI controller tuned by the GA and simplex method in managing the power from the hybrid source effectively under variations of load and solar radiation.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 1720 |

Journal | Energies |

Volume | 10 |

Issue number | 11 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Nov 2017 |

### All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Energy (miscellaneous)
- Control and Optimization
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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## Cite this

*Energies*,

*10*(11), [1720]. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111720