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2019

Comparative high-K material gate spacer impact in DG-finfet parameter variations between two structures

Roslan, A. F., Salehuddin, F., Zain, A. S. M., Kaharudin, K. E., Ahmad, I., Hazura, H., Hanim, A. R. & Idris, S. K., 01 May 2019, In : Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 14, 2, p. 573-580 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Leakage Current
Leakage currents
TiO2
Semiconductor materials
Semiconductors
Implantation
Threshold voltage
Voltage
Optimization
Noise Factor
2018
Taguchi Method
Taguchi methods
Threshold voltage
Implantation
Voltage

Comparative Analysis of Process Parameter Variations in DGFinFET Device Using Statistical Methods

Roslan, A. F., Salehuddin, F., M Zain, A. S., Mansor, N., Kaharudin, K. E., Ahmad, I., Hazura, H., Hanim, A. R., Idris, S. K., Zaiton, A. M., Zarina, B. Z., Mohamad, N. R. & A Hamid, A. M., 30 Nov 2018, In : Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 1123, 1, 012048.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

factorial design
threshold voltage
Taguchi methods
optimization
leakage

High-k Dielectric Thickness and Halo Implant on Threshold Voltage Control

Mah, S. K., Ahmad, I., Ker, P. J. & Noor Faizah, Z. A., 01 Jan 2018, In : Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering. 10, 2-6, p. 1-5 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gate dielectrics
Threshold voltage
Voltage control
Oxides
MOSFET devices

J sc and V oc optimization of perovskite solar cell with interface defect layer using taguchi method

Bahrudin, M. S., Abdullah, S. F., Ahmad, I., Mahmood Zuhdi, A. W., Hasani, A. H., Za'Abar, F., Malik, M. & Harif, M. N., 03 Oct 2018, 2018 IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics, ICSE 2018 - Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 192-196 5 p. 8481203. (IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics, Proceedings, ICSE; vol. 2018-August).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Taguchi methods
Cadmium sulfide
Defects
Perovskite
Open circuit voltage

Modeling, simulation and optimization of 14nm high-K/metal gate NMOS with taguchi method

Mah, S. K., Ahmad, I., Ker, P. J., Tan, K. P. & Faizah, Z. A. N., 03 Oct 2018, 2018 IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics, ICSE 2018 - Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Vol. 2018-August. p. 275-278 4 p. 8481293

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Taguchi methods
Metals
Fabrication
Computer simulation
Patents and inventions

Optimization of 10nm Bi-GFET Device for higher ION/IOFF ratio using Taguchi Method

Roslan, A. F., Kaharudin, K. E., Salehuddin, F., Zain, A. S. M., Ahmad, I., Faizah, Z. A. N., Hazura, H., Hanim, A. R., Idris, S. K., Zaiton, A. M., Mohamad, N. R. & Hamid, A. M. A., 30 Nov 2018, In : Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 1123, 1, 012046.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Taguchi methods
graphene
field effect transistors
halos
optimization

Optimization of process parameters for threshold voltage and leakage current based on taguchi method

Noor Faizah, Z. A., Ahmad, I., Ker, P. J., Menon, P. S., Afifah Maheran, A. H. & Mah, S. K., 01 Jan 2018, In : Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering. 10, 2-7, p. 143-146 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Taguchi methods
Threshold voltage
Leakage currents
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Computer aided design

Threshold voltage and leakage current variability on process parameter in a 22nm PMOS Device

Afifah Maheran, A. H., Menon, P. S., Ahmad, I., Noor Faizah, Z. A., Mohd Zain, A. S., Salehuddin, F. & Sayed, N. M., 01 Jan 2018, In : Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering. 10, 2-8, p. 9-13 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Threshold voltage
Leakage currents
Simulators
Semiconductor materials
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
2017

Control factors optimization on threshold voltage and leakage current in 22 nm NMOS transistor using Taguchi method

Afifah Maheran, A. H., Menon, P. S., Ahmad, I., Salehuddin, F., Mohd, A. S., Noor, Z. A. & Elgomati, H. A., 01 Jan 2017, In : Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering. 9, 2-7, p. 137-141 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Taguchi methods
Threshold voltage
Leakage currents
Signal to noise ratio
Transistors
2 Citations (Scopus)

Growth kinetic and composition of the interfacial layer for RF sputtering Al2O3 layer on germanium

Sahari, S. K., Kashif, M., Sutan, N. M., Embong, Z., Nik Zaini Fathi, N. A. F., Hamzah, A. A., Sapawi, R., Majlis, B. Y. & Ahmad, I., 01 Jan 2017, In : Microelectronics International. 34, 2, p. 64-68 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Germanium
Growth kinetics
Sputtering
germanium
sputtering

Performance characterization of schottky tunneling graphene field effect transistor at 60 nm gate length

Abidin, N. F. Z., Ahmad, I., Ker, P. J. & Menon, P. S., 01 Jul 2017, In : Sains Malaysiana. 46, 7, p. 1089-1095 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gates (transistor)
Field effect transistors
Graphene
Gate dielectrics
Threshold voltage

Vth and ILEAK Optimization using taguchi method at 32nm bilayer graphene PMOS

Noor Faizah, Z. A., Ahmad, I., Ker, P. J., Menon, P. S. & Afifah Maheran, A. H., 01 Jan 2017, In : Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering. 9, 2-7, p. 105-109 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Taguchi methods
Graphene
Threshold voltage
Leakage currents
Semiconductor materials
2016

Application of taguchi method with the interaction test for lower DIBL IN WSix/TiO2 channel vertical double gate NMOS

Kaharudin, K. E., Salehuddin, F., Zain, A. S. M., Aziz, M. N. I. A. & Ahmad, I., 01 Jun 2016, In : ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 11, 11, p. 7093-7103 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Taguchi methods
Polysilicon
Signal to noise ratio
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Metals
1 Citation (Scopus)

Electrical characterization of different high-k dielectrics with tungsten silicide in vertical double gate nmos structure

Kaharudin, K. E., Salehuddin, F., Soin, N., Zain, A. S. M., Aziz, M. N. I. A. & Ahmad, I., 01 Jan 2016, In : ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 11, 21, p. 12328-12335 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tungsten
Polysilicon
Threshold voltage
Semiconductor materials
High-k dielectric
1 Citation (Scopus)

Influence of Optimization of Process Parameters on Threshold Voltage for Development of HfO2/TiSi2 18 nm PMOS

Atan, N., Ahmad, I., Majlis, B. Y. & Azle, M. F., 07 Oct 2016, In : MATEC Web of Conferences. 78, 01019.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Threshold voltage
Ion implantation
Transistors
Taguchi methods
Gate dielectrics
2 Citations (Scopus)

Modeling and simulation of InAs photodiode on electric field profile and dark current characteristics

Roslan, P. S. A., Ker, P. J., Ahmad, I., Jagadeesh, P. & Fam, P. Z., 21 Sep 2016, 2016 IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics, ICSE 2016 - Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 188-191 4 p. 7573623. (IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics, Proceedings, ICSE; vol. 2016-September).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Dark currents
Photodiodes
Electric fields
Vapor phase epitaxy
Molecular beam epitaxy
1 Citation (Scopus)

Modelling of 14NM gate length La2O3-based n-type MOSFET

Mah, S. K., Ahmad, I., Ker, P. J. & Noor Faizah, Z. A., 01 Jan 2016, In : Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering. 8, 4, p. 107-110 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

MOSFET devices
Transistors
Lanthanum oxides
Metals
Threshold voltage
3 Citations (Scopus)

Optimization of process parameter variations on threshold voltage in Ultrathin Pillar Vertical Double Gate MOSFET Device

Kaharudin, K. E., Hamidon, A. H., Salehuddin, F., Ifwat Abd Aziz, M. N. & Ahmad, I., 01 Jan 2016, In : ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 11, 6, p. 3838-3848 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gates (transistor)
MOSFET devices
Threshold voltage
Simulators
Taguchi methods
3 Citations (Scopus)

Process Characterization of 32nm Semi Analytical Bilayer Graphene-based MOSFET

Noor Faizah, Z. A., Ahmad, I., Ker, P. J. & Menon, P. S., 07 Oct 2016, In : MATEC Web of Conferences. 78, 01016.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Graphite
Graphene
Transistors
Hafnium
Metals
2 Citations (Scopus)

Process parameter optimisation for minimum leakage current in a 22nm p-type MOSFET using Taguchi method

Afifah Maheran, A. H., Menon, P. S., Ahmad, I., Salehuddin, F. & Mohd Zain, A. S., 01 Sep 2016, In : Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering. 8, 9, p. 19-23 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Taguchi methods
MOSFET devices
Leakage currents
Signal to noise ratio
Simulators
1 Citation (Scopus)

Process Parameters Optimization of 14nm MOSFET Using 2-D Analytical Modelling

Noor Faizah, Z. A., Ahmad, I., Ker, P. J., Siti Munirah, Y., Mohd Firdaus, R., Md Fazle, E. & Menon, P. S., 07 Oct 2016, In : MATEC Web of Conferences. 78, 01017.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Transistors
Hafnium
Metals
Tungsten
Taguchi methods
1 Citation (Scopus)

Process parameters optimization of 14nm p-type MOSFET using 2-D analytical modeling

Noor Faizah, Z. A., Ahmad, I., Ker, P. J., Siti Munirah, Y., Mohd Firdaus, R., Mah, S. K. & Menon, P. S., 2016, In : Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering. 8, 4, p. 97-100 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Threshold voltage
Transistors
Semiconductor materials
Fabrication
Hafnium
1 Citation (Scopus)

Statistical modelling of 14nm n-types MOSFET

Noor Faizah, Z. A., Ahmad, I., Ker, P. J., Siti Munirah, Y., Mohd Firdaus, R., Mah, S. K. & Menon, P. S., 2016, In : Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering. 8, 4, p. 91-95 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fabrication
Hafnium
Metals
Threshold voltage
Leakage currents
2 Citations (Scopus)

Variability analysis of process parameters on subthreshold swing in vertical DG-MOSFET device

Kaharudin, K. E., Salehuddin, F., Hamidon, A. H., Zain, A. S. M., Abd Aziz, M. N. I. & Ahmad, I., 01 Mar 2016, In : ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 11, 5, p. 3137-3142 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

MOSFET devices
Signal to noise ratio
Experiments
2015
1 Citation (Scopus)

Determination of impact damage severity level in Sheet Molding Compound composite material using thermography method - A preliminary study

Mohamed, A. A., Disele, T. L., Ahmad, I. & Mohd, S., 29 Apr 2015, Advancing of Nuclear Science and Energy for National Development: Proceedings of the Nuclear Science, Technology, and Engineering Conference 2014, NuSTEC 2014. Hamzah, K., Idris, F. M., Hasan, A. B. & Mohamed, A. A. (eds.). American Institute of Physics Inc., Vol. 1659. 040008

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

sheet molding compounds
impact damage
damage
composite materials
impact strength
1 Citation (Scopus)

Development of process parameters for 22 nm PMOS using 2-D analytical modeling

Maheran, A. H. A., Menon, P. S., Ahmad, I., Shaari, S. & Faizah, Z. A. N., 24 Apr 2015, National Physics Conference 2014, PERFIK 2014. Yong, T-K., Phua, Y-N., Lin, H-S. & Rahman, F. A. (eds.). American Institute of Physics Inc., 030007. (AIP Conference Proceedings; vol. 1657).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

transistors
CMOS
leakage
Taguchi methods
scaling

Influence of process parameters on threshold voltage and leakage current in 18nm NMOS device

Atan, N., Ahmad, I., Majlis, B. B. Y. & Fauzi, I. B. A., 24 Apr 2015, National Physics Conference 2014, PERFIK 2014. Yong, T-K., Phua, Y-N., Lin, H-S. & Rahman, F. A. (eds.). American Institute of Physics Inc., 110002. (AIP Conference Proceedings; vol. 1657).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

threshold voltage
leakage
implantation
thresholds
semiconductors
6 Citations (Scopus)

Modeling of 14 nm gate length n-Type MOSFET

Faizah, Z. A. N., Ahmad, I., Ker, P. J., Roslan, P. S. A. & Maheran, A. H. A., 11 Dec 2015, RSM 2015 - 2015 IEEE Regional Symposium on Micro and Nano Electronics, Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 7354988. (RSM 2015 - 2015 IEEE Regional Symposium on Micro and Nano Electronics, Proceedings).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Transistors
field effect transistors
MOSFET devices
Fabrication
transistors

Statistical optimization of process parameters for threshold voltage in 22 nm p-Type MOSFET using Taguchi method

Maheran, A. H. A., Menon, P. S., Shaari, S., Ahmad, I. & Faizah, Z. A. N., 11 Dec 2015, RSM 2015 - 2015 IEEE Regional Symposium on Micro and Nano Electronics, Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 7354989

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Taguchi methods
p-type semiconductors
MOSFET devices
Threshold voltage
metal oxide semiconductors
1 Citation (Scopus)

Taguchi modeling of process parameters in vdg-mosfet device for higher ION/IOFF ratio

Kaharudin, K. E., Salehuddin, F., Hamidon, A. H., Aziz, M. N. I. A. & Ahmad, I., 01 Jan 2015, In : Jurnal Teknologi. 77, 21, p. 19-26 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

MOSFET devices
Polysilicon
Taguchi methods
Leakage currents
Silica
2014
6 Citations (Scopus)

Analysis of threshold voltage variance in 45nm n-channel device using L27 orthogonal array method

Salehuddin, F., Mohd Zain, A. S., Idris, N. M., Mat Yamin, A. K., Abdul Hamid, A. M., Ahmad, I. & Menon, P. S., 17 Mar 2014, Manufacturing Engineering. p. 297-302 6 p. (Advanced Materials Research; vol. 903).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Threshold voltage
Taguchi methods
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Signal to noise ratio
Experiments
1 Citation (Scopus)

Application of Taguchi method in designing a 22nm high-k/metal gate NMOS transistor

Afifah Maheran, A. H., Menon, P. S., Ahmad, I. & Shaari, S., 01 Jan 2014, Micro/Nano Science and Engineering. Trans Tech Publications, p. 514-518 5 p. (Advanced Materials Research; vol. 925).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Taguchi methods
Transistors
Simulators
Metals
Growth temperature
13 Citations (Scopus)

Effect of Halo structure variations on the threshold voltage of a 22 nm gate length NMOS transistor

Afifah Maheran, A. H., Menon, P. S., Ahmad, I. & Shaari, S., 01 Jan 2014, In : Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing. 17, p. 155-161 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Threshold voltage
threshold voltage
halos
implantation
Transistors
1 Citation (Scopus)

Effect of process parameter variability on the threshold voltage of downscaled 22nm PMOS using taguchi method

Maheran, A. H. A., Menon, P. S., Shaari, S., Kalaivani, T., Ahmad, I., Faizah, Z. A. N. & Apte, P. R., 10 Oct 2014, IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics, Proceedings, ICSE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 178-181 4 p. 6920825

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Taguchi methods
Threshold voltage
Metals
Fabrication
Tungsten
9 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of high-K dielectrics with metal gate for electrical characteristics of 18nm NMOS device

Atan, N., Ahmad, I. & Majlis, B. B. Y., 10 Oct 2014, IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics, Proceedings, ICSE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 56-59 4 p. 6920794

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Metals
Leakage currents
Gate dielectrics
Threshold voltage
Dielectric properties
9 Citations (Scopus)

Optimisation of process parameters for lower leakage current in 22 nm n-type MOSFET device using Taguchi method

Afifah Maheran, A. H., Menon, P. S., Ahmad, I. & Shaari, S., 01 Jan 2014, In : Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering). 68, 4, p. 1-5 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Taguchi methods
MOSFET devices
Leakage currents
Polysilicon
Titanium dioxide
5 Citations (Scopus)

Optimisation of process parameters for lower leakage current in 22 nm n-type MOSFET device using Taguchi method

Afifah Maheran, A. H., Menon, P. S., Ahmad, I. & Shaari, S., 01 Jan 2014, In : Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering). 68, 4, p. 45-49 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Taguchi methods
MOSFET devices
Leakage currents
Polysilicon
Titanium dioxide
1 Citation (Scopus)

Reflow soldering process for Sn3.5Ag solder on ENIG using rapid thermal processing system

Adhila Muhammad, N., Bais, B. & Ahmad, I., Jan 2014, In : Sains Malaysiana. 43, 1, p. 117-122 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rapid thermal processing
Soldering
Soldering alloys
Heating
Defects
5 Citations (Scopus)

Statistical process modelling for 32nm high-K/metal gate PMOS device

Maheran, A. H. A., Noor Faizah, Z. A., Menon, P. S., Ahmad, I., Apte, P. R., Kalaivani, T. & Salehuddin, F., 01 Jan 2014, IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics, Proceedings, ICSE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 232-235 4 p. 6920839

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Metals
Fabrication
Transistors
Silicon
Threshold voltage

Study of the effect of WO3 and Bi2O3 on the microstructure and electrical properties of a TiO2 based varistor

Kothandapani, Z., Begum, S., Ahmad, I., Daud, I. R. & Gholizadeh, S., 01 Jan 2014, In : Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences. 6, p. 981-987 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Varistors
Electric properties
Electric breakdown
Microstructure
Oxides
1 Citation (Scopus)

Taguchi optimization of a SiGe/Si quantum dot SOI-based lateral PIN photodiode

Menon, P. S., Tasirin, S. K., Ahmad, I. & Abdullah, S. F., 01 Jan 2014, Micro/Nano Science and Engineering. Trans Tech Publications, p. 646-650 5 p. (Advanced Materials Research; vol. 925).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Photodiodes
Semiconductor quantum dots
Silicon
Optical fiber communication
Fabrication
2 Citations (Scopus)

Wide wavelength range and high speed SiGe/Si multi quantum-well silicon-on-insulator-based lateral PIN photodiode

Menon, P. S., Tasirin, S. K., Ahmad, I. & Abdullah, S. F., 01 Jan 2014, In : Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics. 9, 4, p. 507-510 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Germanium
Silicon
Photodiodes
Semiconductor quantum wells
Wavelength
2013

4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

Kumar Chakrabarty, C., Bin Shamsuddin, A. H., Ahmad, I., Bin Mohamed Desa, M. N., Bte Md Din, N., Mohd Sidek, L., A. Hamid, N., Ong, H. S., Nagi, F. H., Yong, L. C., Jagadeesh, P., Mei, G. S., Bin Abdullah, F. & Satgunam, M., 01 Jan 2013, In : IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 16, 1, 011001.

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorial

energy
18 Citations (Scopus)

Design and optimization of 22 nm gate length high-k/metal gate NMOS transistor

Afifah Maheran, A. H., Menon, P. S., Ahmad, I., Shaari, S., Elgomati, H. A. & Salehuddin, F., 01 Jan 2013, In : Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 431, 1, 012026.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

transistors
optimization
metals
Taguchi methods
analysis of variance
2 Citations (Scopus)

High performance silicon lateral PIN photodiode

Tasirin, S. K., Menon, P. S., Ahmad, I. & Abdullah, S. F., 01 Jan 2013, In : IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 16, 1, 012032.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

fiber optics
silicon
wavelength
communications system
speed
2 Citations (Scopus)

Optimization of process parameters for Si lateral PIN photodiode

Menon, P. S., Kalthom Tasirin, S., Ahmad, I. & Abdullah, S. F., 25 Jun 2013, In : World Applied Sciences Journal. 21, SPECIAL ISSUE1, p. 98-103 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Photodiodes
Bias voltage
Frequency response
Signal to noise ratio
Optical properties
1 Citation (Scopus)

Responsivity optimization of a MQW SOI-based lateral PIN photodiode using Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array

Menon, P. S., Tasirin, S. K., Ahmad, I., Abdullah, S. F. & Apte, P. R., 01 Dec 2013, Proceedings - RSM 2013: 2013 IEEE Regional Symposium on Micro and Nano Electronics. p. 254-257 4 p. 6706523. (Proceedings - RSM 2013: 2013 IEEE Regional Symposium on Micro and Nano Electronics).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Photodiodes
Semiconductor quantum wells
Multilayers
Optical fiber communication
Silicon

Taguchi optimization of a SOI-based lateral PIN photodiode using SiGe/Si multilayer quantum well

Menon, P. S., Tasirin, S. K., Ahmad, I., Islam, S. & Abdullah, S. F., 08 Aug 2013, In : Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Rapid Communications. 7, 5-6, p. 354-361 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Silicon
Photodiodes
Semiconductor quantum wells
Frequency response
Multilayers